To prevent plagiarism, you need to make a proper reference to any and all sources you gather your factual information from. Citations are required for all direct quotes and for specific information or paraphrases taken from outside sources. The only accepted references are in-text references. Please find below comprehensive guides to different citation styles.

Most Common Citation Guides:

MLA Style is the Modern Language Association Style. This style involves an in-text citation immediately following the quote. The citation is placed before the period, and after the ending set of quotation marks. In-text citation contains the last name of the author quoted and the page number where the quote can be found. In MLA Style, the list of references found at the end of the work is not called a bibliography, but "Works Cited Page." Get the details and see examples of MLA Citation Guide Review an easy-to-use MLA Style Guide

APA Style is the style of the American Psychological Association. After a quote or paraphrase, the in-text citation comes before the period and after the closing set of quotation marks; the in-text citation contains the author's last name, the year published, and in some cases, depending on edition of the APA Style Guide, a page number. In APA Style annotated Bibliography list is called "References". Usually papers in APA Style have running headers on each page and abstracts at the very beginning of the paper (unless specified otherwise by the customer). A footnote can appear in APA Style, if the author being quoted is quoting another author. Review an easy-to-use APA Style Guide and Easy and Comprehensive APA Guideline.

Turabian (Chicago) Style is one of the oldest citation styles used in the academic practice, and it is sometimes called Turabian (Kate L. Turabian wrote one of the most comprehensive style guides for this work). Chicago/Turabain citation style is often recognized as out-dated and not practical, though requested in many universities and colleges. Chicago/Turabian Style has two different formats. The traditional format contains footnotes for the citations, which appear on the bottom of the page. The citation itself is usually similar to a mini bibliographical entry for the most part. The second format for this model of citation are end notes, which like footnotes are numbered, only instead of being found at the bottom of a page, the end notes are found right before the Bibliography page. Review an easy-to-use Turabian (Chicago) Style Guide. Useful link

Learn MORE about Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition now:

1) Compare citation in bibliography and in-text citations formatting, and review examples of CMS Notes-Bibliography Sample Paper and CMS Author-Date Sample Paper.

2) Learn more on Chicago Style and enjoy its full understanding CSE/CBE Style is also a relatively new style introduced and promoted by the Council of Science (former - Biology) Editors. CSE/CBE Style is also known as Scientific Style and Format. This is a professional styles for academic writing in natural and physical sciences. There are two ways to do this style: Citation Sequence System, and Name-Year System. Citation Sequence System is the most frequently preferred way of citation. The second method of citation which falls under CSE/CBE Style is the Name-Year System. Normally, this style only appears in certain scientific publications, and is not often required by customers. Review a usage-comfy guide on CSE Style and read more on how to make a CSE Reference List.

Oxford Reference Style. This is a documentary-note citation style widely used in British academic practice. Oxford referencing, or the documentary-note citation system is used essentially in research works on certain history and philosophy departments. Get a full understanding of Oxford Style now.

Harvard Reference Style. Please check Harvard Sample Paper to get acquainted with this citation style. This is an author-date referencing style, which is more popular in UK academic writing than Oxford Reference Style. Explore carefully this comprehensive Guide to Harvard Referencing Learn MORE about Harvard Style now:

  1. Learn to reference online sources in Harvard Style
  2. Read more about Referencing using the author-date (Harvard) System Less Common Citation Styles:

Vancouver Style is a professional biomedical style, originally known as Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. This is a 'numbered' style that follows the rules, which were established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978.

Learn MORE about Vancouver Style now:

  1. Review quick guide on How to Use Vancouver Style
  2. Read more on Vancouver Style It is vitally important to give full reference for the work done in correct format as indicated by the customer - APA, MLA or any other. The failure to format the paper as required is equal to low quality paper and entails fines and even the payment void, if the customer demands full refund.

There are a number of other citation styles that can be used by specific universities or for specific subjects. Please, follow the links to get acquainted with them: Citation Styles This page links to materials with information that will help in creating footnotes, in text citations, and bibliographies, reference lists and works cited pages in various less popular citation styles.

Citing Internet And Print Resources - This page provides useful links to referencing and citing various Internet resources in some widely used and some less popular citation styles.

Please note:

When writing in American English, use double quotation marks (but switch to single quotations marks when nesting a quotation inside a quotation). Put terminal punctuation inside quotes, except when quoting a question or an exclamation; place quotation marks around the titles of short works; use quotations when you want to be "ironic" or perhaps "distance yourself" from "slang" or "controversy".

When writing in British English, use either single or double quotation marks and stick with them throughout the entire paper, unless specified otherwise by the customer. It is historically accepted in British academic writing to use single quotation marks, though nowadays British English usage is increasingly moving towards single quotation marks. NOT ACCEPTABLE CITATION METHODS:

  1. A paper, which has no sources cited, is not accepted;
  2. A paper, which lists a few sources at the end but has no numerical or parenthetic citations in the body of the paper, is not accepted;
  3. Referencing the Internet: Whatever citation system you use, you should always provide more than a web address for Internet referencing and you should NEVER put a web address in a parenthetic in-text citation, but in the bibliography (reference list, work cited page) ONLY. When you provide information such as the author and title it enables the reader to search for the web page, even if the web address is changed.
  4. Wikipedia can NEVER be used as a reference, unless the client agrees, or requests. Important: Avoid using too many Internet resources. If not specified by the customer otherwise, use less than 40% of online references, and place priority on professional sites.

More on Citing from the Web:

Once you use an on-line resource, you should apply general citation rules as to a printed source: when a writer must refer to ideas or quote from a WWW site, he or she must cite that source. Whenever you come to a direct quotation/paraphrasing/summarizing from a WWW Site, any source of visual or graphic information must be cited. Every time you take an order, check the sources required by the customer in the order description. In case the customer requires printed books to be used as references ONLY and you do not have them in printed version, find them on-line and cite it as printed editions. In case the customer signifies only the number of sources without any further requirements in order description, you have a free choice of sources to use. Prevent revision requests, remember to never use Wikipedia and do not use more than 40% of online references. This will help you to be on the safe side and not to receive a revision request for poor referencing background. In cases where the deadline of the paper is not urgent and you have doubts as for your choice of references used in the paper, you can copy-paste the reference list into the message for the customer and ask for his approval. Note: This can be done when you have serious doubts ONLY and if the customer doesn't respond shortly, this is NEVER a case for late delivery

WHAT TO DO IF... /Smart Hints for You/

1. The customer asks not to use Internet sources (books only): In case the customer requires printed books/articles only as a reference, and you do not have them in the print version, find them on-line and cite them as a printed edition (you have to find a copy of a printed version with all publication details), or communicate your request for sources needed via the messaging system to the customer. You may ask the customer to scan the sources required and mail them to Support team and support will forward them to you shortly.

2. If the style is Other…, the customer probably does need any formatting style to be followed in his/her order, but it is better to clarify that with the customer via messaging system.

3. You see the order you like but cannot find the source that the customer requires using, please contact the Support via mail and request to contact the customer for the source specified. Indicate that you are ready to take the order right after the book/article is provided by the customer. More often than not customers upload sources specified into the system and writers can take their orders.

4. The customer didn't specify the Citation Style - how to make your best choice:   

Proper Use of Citation Styles: In the majority of cases, the customer indicates the citation style in the order description. In some cases though, s/he may leave this issue up to the writer trusting his experience and expertise.

MLA Style is one of the most common styles in a variety of academic disciplines, from English and Literature up to Art and History. Despite this diversity, MLA style is mostly used for non-scientific projects (although, some customers do request MLA for scientific papers).

APA Style is similar to MLA Style with regards to a wide area of usage. Psychology-related academic writing requires APA Style only. Alongside, this style can be used while writing papers on Political Science, History, Sociology, Biology (and some other Sciences), Medicine (incl. Nursing), Teaching, Humanities, etc.

Chicago/Turabian Style is one of the oldest citation systems, which is still frequently used nowadays despite its impracticality and awkward usage. Academic papers on History and on some Sciences (mainly Engineering, Computer Science) are most written in Chicago/Turabian Style.

APSA Style is a professional style for Political Science. Though papers on Politics can be written in APA Style, some clients upon the request of their monitors can request APSA Style for politics-related academic writing.

CSE/CBE Style is generally used in Scientific Journals, and some customers may also request this style for their writing projects. If this style is not specified for scientific writing project, you may use APA style, though it is still strongly recommended to consult the customer.

Blue Book: Use only for writing law, or for law schools.

Vancouver Style is a 'numbered' style used for professional biomedical writing. For more information about biomedical styles, refer to our Comprehensive Style Guide, sections "Life Sciences, Biology" and "Medicine". You may also review Research Tips and Documentation Styles for different areas: Humanities, Social Sciences, History and Sciences plus sample papers in particular fields.

To get more detailed information and therefore achieve best -quality academic research in a variety of expertise areas, please use the Comprehensive Style Guide below. We have created this guide especially for you to make the best choice what Citation Style to use when the customer doesn't specify it. Each academic discipline uses its own citation style. Please find below subject areas with appropriate citation style recommendations or (and) specified guidelines.

Literature and Language: most common: MLA Style.

Art: most common: MLA Style.

Psychology: APA Style.

Sociology: ASA Style.

Social Issues: most common: APA Style.

Ethnic and Area Studies: common: APA Style

Gender: APA Style ASA Style

Human Sexuality: APA Style

Philosophy: preferred: MLA Style

Political Science: APSA Style possible: APA.

Government: MLA Style

Public Administration: possible: APA Style, MLA Style

Labor Studies: APA Style, ASA Style

History (incl. Women Studies): Chicago/Turabian Style possible: APA Style Citing Electronic Information in History Papers


Legal Issues: common: APA Style; Basic Legal Citation, Legal Citation Guide, Legal Citation in US , Legal Citation in UK

Criminology: common: APA Style.

Mathematics and Economics:

Mathematics: preferred style: CSE Style.

Business: most common: APA Style

Economics: usual: APA Style

Management: AMA (American Management Association)

HR Management: most common: APA Style Marketing: usual: APA Style

Investment: usual: APA Style ;

Finance: usual: APA Style

Accounting: usual: APA Style

Case Study: usual: APA Style E-Commerce: usual: APA Style

Logistics: usual: APA Style

Trade: usual: APA Style


Science: usual: CSE/CBE Style

Engineering: preferred style: Chicago Style ; possible style: IEEE Style (Electrical Engineering Citation Style); Preferred dictionary: Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Style guidelines on the Official Website of IEEE Computer Society

Mechanical Engineering: Mechanical Engineering Citation Style; Style guidelines can be found on the Official Website of ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineering)

Civil Engineering: Requirements for Paper in Civil Engineering Official Website of ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers)

Computer Science: Chicago Style Preferred dictionary: Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Style guidelines on the Official Website of IEEE Computer Society

IT Management: Chicago Style Preferred dictionary: Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Style guidelines on the Official Website of IEEE Computer Society

Modern Technologies: Chicago Style Preferred dictionary: Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Style guidelines on the Official Website of IEEE Computer Society


Geography: common: APA Style

Geology and Geophysics: common: CSE/CBE Style; AGU Reference Style (based on Chicago Style), Official Website of US Geological Survey, Style Guidelines of Geological Society of America

Archeology: American Antiquity Style, Official Website of Society for American Archeology

Ecology: preferred: CSE/CBE Style;

Environmental Issues: preferred: CSE/CBE Style

Astronomy: preferred: CSE/CBE Style ;

Other fields:

Education: common: APA Style

Health and Medicine (incl. Nursing): preferred: CSE/CBE Style ; AMA Style Guide ; possible: NLM Style Guide; possible: Vancouver Style; Official Website of American Medical Association

Journalism: common: APA Style; AP Style with a Test, Official Website of AP (Associated Press )

Public Relations: common: APA Style;

Advertising: common: APA Style;

Information Campaign: common: APA Style

Communication Strategies: common: APA Style

Religion and Theology: preferred: MLA Style

Life Sciences:

Physics: preferred: CSE/CBE Style ; AIP Style Manual ; Official Website of AIP (American Institute of Physics)

Chemistry: ACS Style ; possible: CSE/CBE Style, Official Website of American Chemical Society; Citation Guide (ASC Publications)

Biology: CSE/CBE Style; possible: Vancouver Style; Official Website of Council of Biology/Science Editors ; Citation Guide for papers in natural sciences

Anthropology: Chicago Style, possible: APA Style ; Preferred dictionary: Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary; Official Website of American Anthropological Association; Citation Guide for Anthropology Papers

Tourism: you may use MLA Style

Creative Writing: common: MLA Style